What if you're living comfortably in retirement and find that you don't need a deferred annuity you bought years ago? Instead, you want to leave it to your heirs at your death. What you may not know is that transferring your deferred annuity at death may subject it to both estate and income taxes. A strategy that can minimize the impact of these taxes is called annuity maximization using permanent life insurance.
When you die, the portion of the annuity death benefit received by your beneficiaries, either
in a lump sum or as periodic payments, that exceeds your investment in the annuity is includible
as taxable income to your beneficiaries. In addition, the full accumulation value of your
deferred annuity is includible in your gross estate at your death. If your estate is large
enough to owe federal and/or state estate taxes, your deferred annuity will be subject to
those taxes, as well. The combination of estate and income taxes can erode a significant portion of your annuity's value. The result is that your beneficiaries may receive an annuity worth much less than you anticipate.
How annuity maximization works
Here's the basic way this strategy works: You exchange your deferred annuity for a single premium immediate annuity (SPIA) that provides an income stream to you for the rest of
your life. You then obtain permanent life insurance with you as the insured, and use the
SPIA distributions to pay the insurance premiums. At your death, the SPIA payments stop
and the insurance proceeds are paid to your beneficiaries.
Alternatively, if you prefer to retain the deferred annuity instead of converting it to a
SPIA, you may be able to take penalty-free withdrawals from your deferred annuity, which
also can be used to pay the insurance premiums. However, annuities vary as to penalty-free
withdrawal availability, so for complete details, be sure to check with the annuity issuer
or review your annuity contract or prospectus.
Caution: Annuity distributions before age 59½ may be subject to a 10 percent federal tax penalty.
Annuity guarantees are based on the claims-paying ability of the annuity issuer. The annuity maximization strategy may pose some income tax issues for you. SPIA payments
and annuity withdrawals may be taxable to you. A portion of each SPIA payment
you receive is subject to income taxes and a portion is considered a nontaxable return of
premium. Conversely, withdrawals from your deferred annuity (for annuities issued after
1982) are taxed as income first, meaning the entire withdrawal is includible as income until
all of the annuity's earnings are withdrawn, after which withdrawals of principal are not
includible as income.
Why annuity maximization works
Instead of getting the deferred annuity at your death, your beneficiaries receive the life insurance proceeds income tax free, and you can also effectively remove the value of the deferred
annuity from your estate by converting it to a SPIA. Since the SPIA payments cease at your
death, the SPIA is not included as an asset of your estate.
In addition, the life insurance can escape estate taxes if the policy is not part of your estate
at death. To achieve this goal, you can't own the policy; it must be owned by another (e.g.,
your child or an irrevocable life insurance trust). You then make gifts to the policy owner
equal to the annual insurance premium. However, gifts may be subject to both federal and
state gift taxes, so you should consult your tax professional before making such gifts.
The bottom line
If you own an annuity that you want to transfer to your heirs at your death, a significant portion
of its value may be lost to estate and income taxes. Annuity maximization is a strategy
that lets you replace part or all of a taxable asset (your deferred annuity) with an
asset (permanent life insurance) that may be subject to neither income nor estate taxes at
your death. This approach may effectively allow you to increase the amount you pass on
to your beneficiaries.